Spine Topics

A directory of spine topics covered in the Semmes Murphey patient education materials.

  • Anatomy of the Spine

    Anatomy of the Spine

    The spine is made of 33 individual bony vertebrae stacked one on top of the other. This spinal column provides the main support for your body, allowing you to stand upright, bend, and twist, while protecting the spinal cord from injury. Strong bones and muscles, flexible tendons and ligaments, and sensitive nerves contribute to a healthy spine.

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  • Adjacent segment disease after surgery

    Adjacent segment disease after surgery

    Adjacent segment disease is a condition that sometimes occurs after a spinal fusion surgery. Fusion joins or “locks” two or more bones together, stopping the natural motion at that level. While the goal is to relieve painful motion, fusion causes the adjacent discs to work harder. Similar to a domino effect, degenerative changes can develop on the discs and joints above or below the previous surgery site.

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  • Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF)

    Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF)

    Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion is a surgery to remove a herniated or degenerative disc in the neck. An incision is made in the throat area to reach and remove the disc. A graft is inserted to fuse together the bones above and below the disc. ACDF may be an option if physical therapy or medications fail to relieve your neck or arm pain caused by pinched nerves. Patients typically go home the same day.

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  • Artificial disc replacement (cervical arthroplasty)

    Artificial disc replacement (cervical arthroplasty)

    Artificial disc surgery replaces a worn-out disc in the spine with a device that moves like a natural disc. The device is made of metal plates with a ceramic or polymer core that flexes or glides. It's an alternative to spinal fusion, which stops all motion at the disc. The benefit of an artificial disc is less stress on adjacent discs compared to fusion. But it is not for those with facet joint arthritis or weak bones. It's an option if physical therapy or medications fail to relieve neck or arm pain caused by pinched nerves.

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  • Anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF)

    Anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF)

    Anterior lumbar interbody fusion is a surgery to treat disc problems in the low back. Fusion locks together two or more bones to stop painful motion and correct their alignment. Through an incision in the front of the belly, the disc is removed. A bone graft is placed in the empty space to restore the height and relieve nerve pinching. During healing, the bones fuse into one solid piece.

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  • Axial lumbar interbody fusion (AxiaLIF)

    Axial lumbar interbody fusion (AxiaLIF)

    AxiaLIF is a minimally invasive spinal fusion to treat disc problems in the low back. Fusion stabilizes the spine to stop the painful motion and decompress pinched nerves. Through a small incision at the tailbone, the damaged disc is removed and a rod placed to correct the spacing between the vertebrae. During healing, the bones will fuse together. The back muscles are avoided, so recovery is quicker.

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  • Back pain

    Back pain

    Back pain results when the spine is stressed by injury, disease, wear and tear, or poor body mechanics. Acute low back pain is abrupt, intense pain that subsides after a period of days or weeks. It typically resolves with rest, physical therapy, and other self-care measures. You play an important role in the prevention, treatment, and recovery of back pain. Chronic pain that persists may need further evaluation.

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  • Braces for your back

    Braces for your back

    Your doctor may prescribe a brace for you to wear after a spinal injury or surgery. It will immobilize your spine while you heal and will control pain by restricting your movement. Common back braces include the thoracic-lumbar-sacral brace (TLSO) and the lumbarsacral brace (LSO).

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  • Braces for cervical-thoracic spine

    Braces for cervical-thoracic spine

    Your doctor may prescribe a brace for you to wear after a spinal injury or surgery. It will immobilize your spine while you heal and will control pain by restricting your movement. Common back braces include the thoracic-lumbar-sacral brace (TLSO) and the lumbarsacral brace (LSO).

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  • Braces for your neck

    Braces for your neck

    Your doctor may prescribe a neck brace for you to wear after a spinal injury or surgery. It will immobilize your head while you heal and will control pain by restricting your movement. Common neck braces include the soft cervical collar, the Miami J collar, and the Vista Multi-post.

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  • Carpal tunnel syndrome

    Carpal tunnel syndrome

    Carpal tunnel syndrome causes tingling, numbness, or pain in the hand. The wrist bones and ligament form a tunnel, a passage for the median nerve and finger tendons. Repetitive strain may cause swelling that traps the nerve within the tunnel. Treatments include modifying activities, physical therapy, a wrist brace, or medications. Surgery that re-opens the space and frees the nerve may be an option.

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  • Cauda equina syndrome

    Cauda equina syndrome

    Cauda equina syndrome is a rare condition most often caused by a large disc herniation in the lower back that compresses the nerve roots at the end of the spinal cord. Sudden back pain with numbness in the genital area, difficulty urinating, and weakness in the legs is a medical emergency. Prompt surgery to relieve the pressure may prevent permanent damage and restore bladder and bowel function.

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  • Chiropractic care

    Chiropractic care

    Chiropractic medicine aims to improve health by restoring structure and function to the spine and other joints. Stress, accidents, overexertion, or other injuries may cause minor displacement (subluxation) of the spinal vertebra. When a vertebra is displaced or an extremity is affected, muscle tension or irritation to the spinal nerves can result, causing pain (e.g., neck, back, headache, whiplash) and impairing overall health.

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  • Degenerative disc disease

    Degenerative disc disease

    Degenerative disc disease affects the discs that separate the spine bones. As you age, the spine begins to show signs of wear and tear as the discs dry out and shrink. These age-related changes can lead to arthritis, disc herniation, or stenosis. Pressure on the spinal nerves may cause pain. Physical therapy, self-care, medication, and spinal injections are used to manage symptoms. Surgery may be an option if the pain is chronic.

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  • Epidural steroid injection (ESI)

    Epidural steroid injection (ESI)

    An epidural steroid injection (ESI) is a minimally invasive procedure that can help relieve neck, arm, back, and leg pain caused by inflamed spinal nerves. ESI may be performed to relieve pain caused by spinal stenosis, spondylolysis, or disc herniation. Medicines are delivered to the spinal nerve through the epidural space, the area between the protective covering of the spinal cord and vertebrae. The effects of ESI tend to be temporary. Pain relief may last for several days or even years.

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  • Exercises: back stretches and strengthening

    Exercises: back stretches and strengthening

    Exercise is a vital part of treating the spine after injury or surgery. Active therapeutic exercises distribute nutrients into the disc space, joints and soft tissues in the back. A regular exercise routine helps patients improve mobility and strength, minimize recurrence, and reduces the severity and duration of possible future episodes of back pain.

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  • Exercise, Core exercises to strengthen the spine

    Exercise, Core exercises to strengthen the spine

    Your core muscles support your spine. The muscles in your abdomen and back - which we call the "core" - are central to your everyday spine health. They are at the heart of any fitness plan to strengthen a healthy or ailing back. Just as you protect your heart through cardiovascular exercises, you will benefit from strengthening your back through core exercises.

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  • Exercises: neck stretches and strengthening

    Exercises: neck stretches and strengthening

    Exercise is a vital part of treating the spine after injury or surgery. Active therapeutic exercises distribute nutrients into the disc space, joints and soft tissues in the back. A regular exercise routine helps patients improve mobility and strength, minimize recurrence, and reduces the severity and duration of possible future episodes of neck and arm pain.

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  • Facet arthritis, facet joint syndrome

    Facet arthritis, facet joint syndrome

    Facet joint syndrome is an arthritis-like condition of the spine that can be a significant source of back and neck pain. It is caused by degenerative changes to the joints between the spine bones. The cartilage inside the facet joint can break down and become inflamed, triggering pain signals in nearby nerve endings. Medication, physical therapy, joint injections, nerve blocks, and nerve ablations may be used to manage symptoms.

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  • Herniated cervical disc

    Herniated cervical disc

    A herniated disc occurs when the gel-like center of a disc ruptures through a weak area in the tough outer wall. Neck or arm pain, numbness or tingling may result when the disc material compresses a spinal nerve. Treatment with medication, spinal injections, and physical therapy is the first step to recovery. Most people improve in 6 weeks and return to normal activity. If symptoms continue, surgery may be an option.

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  • Herniated lumbar disc

    Herniated lumbar disc

    A herniated disc occurs when the gel-like center of a disc ruptures through a weak area in the tough outer wall. Back or leg pain, numbness or tingling may result when the disc material compresses a spinal nerve. Treatment with medication, spinal injections, and physical therapy is the first step to recovery. Most people improve in 6 weeks and return to normal activity. If symptoms continue, surgery may be an option.

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  • Intrathecal drug pump

    Intrathecal drug pump

    Intrathecal drug delivery, or "pain pump," is a method of giving medication directly to your spinal cord. The system uses a small pump that is surgically placed under the skin of your abdomen and delivers medication through a catheter to the area around your spinal cord – similar to an epidural that women may have during childbirth. Because the medication is delivered directly to the spinal cord, your symptoms can be controlled with a much smaller dose than is needed with oral medication.

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  • Joint injections

    Joint injections

    A steroid injection is a minimally invasive procedure that can temporarily relieve pain caused by an inflamed joint. The cause of joint pain (arthritis, injury, degeneration) is not well understood. The procedure has two purposes. First, it can be used as a diagnostic test to see if the pain is actually coming from the joint. Second, it can be used as a treatment to relieve inflammation and pain caused by various conditions.

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  • Lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF)

    Lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF)

    Lateral interbody fusion is a minimally invasive surgery to treat disc problems in the low back. In spinal fusion, two or more bones of the spine are joined to stop painful motion, decompress pinched nerves, and correct scoliosis. Through a small incision at the side of the waist, the disc is removed and a bone graft is inserted to restore the height and relieve nerve pinching. During healing, the bones will fuse together.

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  • Neck pain

    Neck pain

    Neck pain results when the spine is stressed by injury, disease, wear and tear, or poor body mechanics. Acute neck pain is abrupt, intense pain that can radiate to the head, shoulders, arms, or hands. It typically subsides with rest, physical therapy, and self-care measures. You play an important role in the prevention, treatment and recovery of neck pain. Chronic pain that persists may need further evaluation.

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  • Nerve block injection test

    Nerve block injection test

    A nerve block injection, also called a pain receptor block injection, is a minimally invasive procedure that can temporarily relieve joint or nerve pain. The procedure is used as a diagnostic test to determine if the pain is actually coming from the nerve or joint. The effects of a nerve/pain receptor block tend to be temporary and are rarely long term. If the block is successful, then a radiofrequency ablation may be recommended.

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  • Nerve radiofrequency ablation

    Nerve radiofrequency ablation

    A radiofrequency ablation is a minimally invasive procedure that destroys the nerve fibers carrying pain signals to the brain. It can provide lasting relief for people with chronic pain, especially in the lower back, neck and arthritic joints. If you suffer recurrent pain and you've experienced good relief with a nerve block injection, you may be a candidate for a radiofrequency ablation.

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  • Pain management

    Pain management

    Acute pain starts suddenly and improves over time with healing. Chronic pain persists and is often present in ongoing conditions such as arthritis or cancer. Pain management is an integrated approach to making pain tolerable by learning coping skills. This may include exercise, physical therapy, medication, holistic therapies, and counseling.

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  • Pain pump (intrathecal drug pump)

    Pain pump (intrathecal drug pump)

    A "pain pump" is a method of giving medication directly to the spinal cord. The system uses a small pump that is surgically placed under the skin of your abdomen. The pump delivers medication through a catheter to the space around your spinal cord. Because the drug is delivered directly to the pain area, symptoms can be controlled with a much smaller dose than is needed with oral medication.

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  • Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation (PM&R)

    Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation (PM&R)

    Physiatry, also called physical medicine and rehabilitation, is a medical specialty that uses physical means to help in diagnosis, healing, and rehabilitation. Physiatrists specialize in the treatment of patients with chronic illness (stroke) or injury (spinal cord, brain), acute and chronic pain, and musculoskeletal injuries. Many physiatrists specialize in the treatment of back pain.

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  • Physical therapy

    Physical therapy

    Physical therapy is an important part of a nonsurgical approach to maintain, restore, and improve overall physical health. Pain-free mobility is crucial for physical independence, earning a living, quality of life and well being. Working with a doctor, a physical therapist (PT) can help patients who have suffered an injury, disease, or those recovering from surgery.

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  • Preparing for lumbar spinal fusion

    Preparing for lumbar spinal fusion

    Spinal fusion is a surgery that permanently joins together one or more bony vertebrae of the spine. Abnormal movement of the vertebrae rubbing against one another may result in back, leg, or arm pain. Fusing the vertebrae bones together stabilizes and aligns the spine, maintains the normal disc space between the bones, and prevents further damage to the spinal nerves and cord.

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  • Posterior lumbar discectomy

    Posterior lumbar discectomy

    Lumbar discectomy is a surgery to remove a herniated or degenerative disc in the lower spine. The incision is made posterior, through the back muscles, to reach and remove the disc pressing on the nerve. Discectomy may be recommended if physical therapy or medication fail to relieve leg or back pain caused by pinched spinal nerves. The surgery can be performed in an open or minimally invasive technique.

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  • Posture and body mechanics

    Posture and body mechanics

    Good posture involves training your body to stand, walk, sit, and lie in positions where the least strain is placed on supporting muscles and ligaments during movement or weight-bearing activities. The spine's curves work like a coiled spring to absorb shock, maintain balance, and to facilitate the full range of motion throughout the spinal column.

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  • Sacroiliac joint pain

    Sacroiliac joint pain

    Sacroiliac (SI) pain is felt in the low back and buttocks. The pain is caused by damage to the joint between the spine and hip. Sacroiliac pain can mimic other conditions, such as a herniated disc or hip problem. Accurate diagnosis is important to determine the source of pain. Physical therapy, stretching exercises, pain medication, and joint injections are used first to manage the symptoms. Surgery can fuse the joint.

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  • Sciatica, leg pain

    Sciatica, leg pain

    Sciatica is a term used to describe leg pain that radiates from your back into your buttock, and down the back of your leg. It is a general term used to describe symptoms rather than an actual physical condition. Typically the pain is caused by pressure on the nerve roots in your lower back. Doctors often call it lumbar radiculopathy, meaning that the pain begins in the spinal nerve roots and "radiates" to your leg. Depending on the cause, acute sciatica typically resolves with rest, exercise, and other self-care measures. Some people suffer from chronic pain that continues despite treatment.

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  • Self care for neck & back pain

    Self care for neck & back pain

    Eight out of 10 people will suffer from back or neck pain at some point in their life. Acute pain is abrupt, intense pain that subsides after a period of days or weeks. However, some people continue to suffer from pain that continues despite nonsurgical or surgical treatment methods. This long-term pain is called chronic pain.

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  • Spinal cord stimulation

    Spinal cord stimulation

    Spinal cord stimulation delivers low voltage current to block the feeling of pain. A small device implanted in the body transmits an electrical current to the spinal cord. When turned on, the stimulation feels like a mild tingling in the area where pain is felt. It helps patients with chronic pain better manage symptoms and potentially decrease use of pain medications.

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  • Spinal decompression, laminectomy

    Spinal decompression, laminectomy

    Decompression surgery (laminectomy) removes the bony roof covering the spinal cord and nerves to create more space for them to move freely. Narrowing / stenosis of the spinal canal can cause chronic pain, numbness, and muscle weakness in the arms or legs. Surgery may be recommended if your symptoms have not improved with physical therapy or medications.

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  • Spinal deformity, scoliosis

    Spinal deformity, scoliosis

    Spinal deformity is an abnormal alignment or curve of the bony vertebral column. Adult scoliosis and kyphosis can be caused by age-related wear and tear on the back or complications from past surgeries. Moderate deformity occurs when the facet joints and discs deteriorate over time and are no longer able to support the spine's normal posture. Pain results from stressed joints and pinched nerves, not the abnormal curve. Treatment can include medications, physical therapy, injections, or surgery.

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  • Spinal fractures

    Spinal fractures

    A fracture of a vertebra can cause bone fragments to pinch and damage the spinal nerves or spinal cord. Most spinal fractures occur from car accidents, falls, gunshot, or sports. Injuries can range from mild ligament and muscle strains, to fractures and dislocations of the bones, to debilitating spinal cord damage. Many fractures heal with conservative treatment; some may require surgery to realign the bones.

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  • Spinal stenosis

    Spinal stenosis

    Spinal stenosis is the narrowing of your spinal canal and nerve root canal along with the enlargement of your facet joints. Most commonly it is caused by osteoarthritis and your body's natural aging process. As the spinal canal narrows, there is less room for your nerves to branch out and move freely. As a result, they may become swollen and inflamed, which can cause pain, cramping, numbness or weakness in your legs, back, neck, or arms. Mild to moderate symptoms can be relieved with medications, physical therapy and spinal injections. Severe symptoms may require surgery.

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  • Spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis

    Spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis

    Spondylolysis (spon-dee-low-lye-sis) and spondylolisthesis (spon-dee-low-lis-thee-sis) are conditions that affect the moveable joints of the spine that help keep the vertebrae aligned one on top of the other. Spondylolysis is actually a weakness or stress fracture in one of the facet joints. This weakness can cause the vertebrae to slip forward out of their normal position, a condition called spondylolisthesis. Treatment options include physical therapy to strengthen the muscles surrounding the area. Sometimes the patient is placed in a brace. In severe cases, surgery is also an option.

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  • Sympathetic nerve block

    Sympathetic nerve block

    A lumbar sympathetic block is an injection of a local anesthetic that can help relieve chronic leg and foot pain caused by conditions such as complex regional pain syndrome, reflex sympathetic dystrophy, vascular insufficiency, and shingles. Medications are delivered to the sympathetic nerves – a cluster of nerve cell bodies – along the front side of the spine. The goal is to reduce pain so that you can resume normal activities and physical therapy.

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  • Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS)

    Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS)

    Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) is a noninvasive device placed on the skin that can help control pain. Use of this small, battery-operated device can block pain signals from reaching the brain and potentially reduce pain medication. It is important to remember that TENS does not cure or eliminate the cause of pain and is not effective for every patient.

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  • Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF)

    Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF)

    Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion is a surgery used to treat disc problems in the low back. Fusion locks together two or more bones to stop painful motion, relieve pinched nerves, and correct scoliosis. Through small, minimally invasive incisions in the back, the disc is removed. A bone graft spacer is placed in the space to restore the height and relieve nerve pinching. During healing, the bones fuse together.

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  • Vertebroplasty & kyphoplasty

    Vertebroplasty & kyphoplasty

    Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty are minimally invasive procedures performed to treat vertebral compression fractures (VCF) of the spine. These fractures, which can be painful and limit spine mobility, are commonly caused by osteoporosis, spinal tumors, and traumatic injury. Traditional treatments of bed rest, pain medication, and braces are slow to relieve the pain. By injecting bone cement into the fractured bone and restoring the vertebra height, these procedures offer patients faster recovery and reduce the risk of future fractures in the treated bone.

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